Indian Removals 1800-1900

Indian Removals 1800-1900

Posted By Josiah Hair April 1st, 2013 Last Updated on: April 2nd, 2013

Much has been written about the various removals that occurred through out the 1800's with the Cherokee Trail of Tears gaining the most exposure to the public through movies, plays and the written word. A dark chapter in the history of the United States and a Blight on the Memory of the Office of the Presidency. Not much has been written about the “other” Removals such as the Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, Chickasaws or the Quapaws, Wynadottes Delawares Modocs Nez Pierce or the Shawnees. At one time the thought was to move all Indian Tribes to a Area called Indian Territory which the in the 1830's encompassed present day Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Here are the “other” Trail of Tears:

Absentee Shawnee  Technically speaking, the original migration to what is now Oklahoma was not a removal.  After the septs split (well before the Civil War), a band who came to be called the “Absentee Shawnee” allied with the Creeks and settled in the western Creek lands between the two Canadian Rivers.  After the war, when the Creeks were forced to cede those western lands, some remained but many of the Absentee Shawnee fled to Mexico.  Eventually, of course, most of those who survived were forced to return.

Cherokee At least five different routes have been reported.  See the Cherokee Nation ITGenWeb Site for more history, or a explore a Detailed Map.

Chickasaw  The point of departure was near the Mississippi River in southwestern Tennessee, with several minor trails leading to it.  The journey was then south along the Military Road, crossing the Mississippi River in southeastern Arkansas and following the Arkansas River northwest across Arkansas to Ft. Smith and Ft. Coffee.  See the Chickasaw Nation ITGenWeb Site for more history.



Choctaw  As far as I have been able to determine, the Choctaw removals did not use any of the same roads as the others.  The final leg was on the westernmost portion of the Military Road from Little Rock to Ft. Towson.  See the Choctaw Nation ITGenWeb Site for more history.

Creek  The southern route started overland from Ft. Michael to Mobile Alabama, then by boat to New Orleans.  It continued by land along a Military Road that roughly paralleled the Mississippi River.  After crossing the Mississippi River, it followed the Arkansas River to Ft. Smith and Ft. Coffee.  I have not yet found information about the road/trail from Ft. Coffee to the Creek Lands.  The northern route arced northwest to near the Mississippi River in southwestern Tennessee, then followed the old Military Road along the river until it reached the Arkansas River and merged with the southern route. See the Creek Nation ITGenWeb Site for more history.

Iowa  A small band of Iowa was moved to Oklahoma Territory from Kansas.  See the Sac & Fox Agency ITGenWeb Site for more information.

Kaskaskias Algonquians removed to the Quapaw Tract.



Kickapoo  They had a long history of moving on to escape white encroachment, thus splitting into a number of separate groups.  The band that ended up in Oklahoma Territory had fled to the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, but was forcibly removed to Oklahoma Territory in the 1880s. See the Sac & Fox Agency ITGenWeb Site for more information.

Miami Algonquians removed to the Quapaw Tract.

Modoc Removed to the Quapaw Tract from Oregon and northern California.

Ottawa Algonquians removed to the Quapaw Tract.

Peoria  Algonquians removed to the Quapaw Tract.

Piankashaw  Algonquians removed to the Quapaw Tract.

Pottawatomi  During the relocation of the Plains Tribes after after the Civil War, the Kansas band selected the area west of the Creek Nation, between the Canadian Rivers and was moved to their new lands in the 1870s.  See the Sac & Fox Agency ITGenWeb Site for more information.



Quapaw Siouians removed from their reservation in Kansas to the Quapaw Tract.

Sac & Fox  A 1867 treaty with one faction resulted in the removal of almost the entire Kansas band to what was then Indian Territory, later Oklahoma Territory.  See the Sac & Fox Agency ITGenWeb Site for more information.

Seminole  So far, Tampa Bay is the only departure point I have found but apparently a number of minor trails led to it.  The first leg of the journey was by boat across the Gulf of Mexico to New Orleans. Then the journey continued by land along a Military Road that roughly paralleled the Mississippi River.  After crossing the Mississippi River, the journey continued northwest along the Arkansas River to reach Ft. Smith and Ft. Coffee.  I have not yet found information about the road/trail from Ft. Coffee to the Seminole Lands. See the Seminole Nation ITGenWeb Site for more history.

Seneca Removed to the Quapaw Tract from Sandusky, Ohio, where they had fled from central New York.  This band probably included other Iroquoian refugees, such as Eries and and Conestogas.

Shawnee Algonquians from the Ohio Valley removed to the Quapaw Tract.

Weas Algonquians removed to the Quapaw Tract.

Wyandotte An Iroquoian fragment removed to the Quapaw Tract from their reservation along the Neosho River


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Rebecca

Forced marches happened all over. On August 28, 1863 all Konkow Maidu were to be at the Bidwell Ranch in Chico California, to be taken to the Round Valley Reservation over 100 miles away at Covelo in Mendocino County, California. Any Native Americans remaining in the area were to be shot. 435 Maidu were rounded up and marched under guard west out of the Sacramento Valley and through to the Coastal Range. 461 Indians started the trek, 277 finished. They reached Round Valley on September 18, 1863.

Gregory Bailey

A nice article on the other removals, or trails to Indian Territory. Being Seminole, the ships where not nice ships they where Slave ships, like the ones that came from transporting slaves accross the world.

alani

Some of my Native Ancestors in Delaware and Pennsylvania were removed west as well. Some left on their own and went to the Onondaga Reservation in Canada, but others were forced to move to Oklahoma and other points west.

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