Final Roll of the Cherokee Nation & Freedman

Posted By Josiah Hair June 6th, 2012 Featured

Today we call this the Dawes Rolls, although it encompasses the original Five Civilized Tribes of the South East (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole).

This article is specifically about the Cherokee Roll.  To describe this roll and purpose, first, we must do a bit of history and hopefully give the reader a better understanding of this particular Roll.

Dawes Commission & General Allotment Act, or Dawes Severalty Act

An act of Congress approved on 3. March. 1893 (27 Stat, 645) authorized the establishment of a commission to negotiate agreements with the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole tribes providing for the dissolution of the tribal governments and the allotment of land to each tribal member. The sponsor, Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts was appointed Chairman of the Commission on 1. Nov. 1893, after which it has commonly been referred to as the Dawes Commission.

The Commission was authorized by an Act of Congress approved 28. June. 1898 (30 Stat. 495) to prepare citizenship (Tribal Membership) rolls for each tribe.  Under this act, subsequent acts and resulting agreements negotiated with each tribe, the Commission received applications for membership covering more than 250,000 people and enrolled more than 101,000. The Tribal Membership Rolls were closed on 4. March. 1907, by an Act of Congress, approved on 26. April. 1906 (34 Stat. 370), although an additional 312 persons were enrolled under an act approved 1. August. 1914.

The thought at the time was to give each individual tribal member their own land to farm and thus strengthen the family unit and do away with the tendency of tribes to cluster in social groups and hold land in common and at the same time disband the court and government systems of these tribes.

Although the General Allotment Act, or Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 originally did not cover the Five Civilized Tribes, by 1893 Congress decided to add them to the list for an allotment.  The Cherokees fought this until 1899 when it was decided to bring it to a vote of the Cherokees and it passed by about 2015 votes.   The vote included hundreds of intermarried whites among the Cherokee that were later found to be ineligible for a share of the Land Allotment.  This GAA or DSA was devastating to these tribes and by 1936 the Allotment Act was terminated by the Howard-Wheeler Act and Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act which allowed tribal governments to reform.

Workings of the Commission and after 1900

Now that we have briefly covered the History of the Dawes Commission lets dive into the inner workings of the Commission to allow millions of acres of land to the individuals.  The Cherokee Nation prior to 1900 was divided into 9 districts with a courthouse in each district housing the courts and offices of the tribal council-member representing that district. The districts were Tahlequah District, Delaware District, Cooweescowee District, Saline District, Goingsnake District, Illinois District, Flint District, Sequoyah District and Canadian District.

The Dawes Commission advertised the intended action of the commission by posting informational flyers at Post Offices throughout the Districts calling for all Cherokees to come in and be registered for tribal membership. The next step was to “set up shop” so to speak in each Courthouse in each district. The Committee at each of these courthouses would consist of several members of the Commission, a stenographer, and a hired local Cherokee as interpreter.

So now we have the mechanism for how the commission was to take testimony from over 250,000 people of the Five Civilized Tribes and enroll over 100,000 people from 1900 to 1906 all over Indian Territory.

We can dispel one of the many myths that have cropped up about the Roll: The “Hideout Myth.”  It goes something along these lines,

“My ancestor was not on the roll because they refused to enroll…” or “My ancestor was not on the roll because they left the Cherokee Nation to keep from being enrolled…” and also “My ancestor is not on the roll because they hid out in the backwoods and they could not find them….”

The Cherokee Nation Tribal Government had done several “recent” Census of tribal members in 1880 and 1896 with both provided to the Dawes Commission for their use. The Commission was only interested in Living Cherokees (1900-1907) that resided within the Cherokee Nation that could be verified by virtue of being counted by their own tribe on the previous census.

If one was not on the census of the Cherokee themselves, nor could one provide names of parents or grandparents that would be on either census then one could not be enrolled.   Over 250,000 people physically showed up in one of these courthouses and filled out an application to be included in this Land Allotment. That is double the number of members of each one of The Five Civilized Tribes and records indicated that people came from all walks of life and from just about every territory including as far away as the Hawaiian Islands.

It is difficult to believe that any of the Five Civilized Tribes had large groups of Full-bloods totaling some 250,000 hiding in the backcountry.  Thus it is very hard to believe that some quarter of a million Cherokee were hiding out in every district of the Nation.

No, it is far more likely that anyone who showed up to enroll that did not have a prior history would end up on the Rejected Rolls or the Doubtful Rolls which brings us to the next part.

Who Is Cherokee

The Commission enrolled individuals as citizens of a tribe under the following categories:

  • Citizens by Blood
  • Citizens by Marriage
  • New Born Citizens (enrolled under an act by Congress approved 3. March. 1903).
  • Minor Citizens by Blood (enrolled under an Act of Congress approved 26. April. 1906).
  • Freedman (former black slaves of Indians, later freed and admitted to tribal citizenship).
  • New Born Freedman
  • Minor Freedman
  • Delaware Indians adopted by the Cherokee Tribe were enrolled as a separate group within the Cherokees.

Within each enrollment category the Commission maintained three types of cards:

“Straight” cards for persons who applications were approved (Generally those that showed up on multiple rolls).

“D” cards for persons whose applications were considered doubtful and subject to question (Generally those that may have left the nation for a time but came back for allotment).

“R” cards for persons whose applications were rejected.

Author Research Example

To use the rolls first you do a lookup in the index but you must have some vital information on hand such as 1) Tribe 2) Name 3) Approx. age between the years of 1900 to 1906.  Some other great information to have is names of any spouse and children as this will aid in nailing down the exact person you are looking for.

So as an example let’s look up Bird Hair in the index.

We do not find him so let’s look for an alternate spelling like Hare and we find a Bird Hare with roll number 29052.

Next, we look up the Enrollment packet listing for 29052 to get the census card number and that is 7757.  Then we look in the Dawes Packet for 7757 and a wealth of information spills out.  We now know his parent’s names, that he enrolled in the Tahlequah District, where he got his mail, and what his age was at the time of enrollment.  We can now cross-check to make sure he is the right age for the person we are looking for. Most importantly we can read his testimony and from this, we know the date he enrolled, in this case, was 14. April. 1902 which with his age of 23 we can reasonably establish his approximate birth year of 1879 or so.

The Testimony pages are typed answers to questions the Commission asked like: name, age, where one lived, names of parents, marital status and more. But here is the kicker, in this case, they asked if Bird Hare was known by any other name and he indicated that yes he was called Nelson Hare when he was little.  At the bottom of the page notes by the Commission are included and in this case, it mentions that indeed they found a Nelson Hare on 1880 Roll page 767 Number 989 and on the 1896 Roll they found a Nelson Hare.

This brings up several very important points and in some cases why one cannot find a person they are looking for.  The example I used was my Grandmas first Husband who passed away in the 1930′s.  From family stories, he was known as Bob Hair.  But he had called himself Bird Hare and even earlier he was Nelson Hare. I looked and looked in vain for a Bob Hair and never knowing his parent’s names I came to a dead-end. Recently I was talking to my cousin about our genealogy and she passed on her enrollment information which showed her Grandfather’s name was Bird Hare.  The mystery was solved and I was able to add his name to our family tree.


An important issue when searching genealogy is that of multiple names.  Cherokees in the 1880′s and earlier did not use surnames such as the Europeans and Americans.  The name that one was known by could change as they grew older and this was a part of the culture to change names as one changed or personality changed or certain happenings in life gave a name change.  Thus one could be known by many names.

Another name problem was the person writing down the information would phonetically spell the name.  Most Cherokees did not read and write English, so the error would be passed down generation by generation. A good example would be the names Ummerteskee, Ahmadeske and Askwater that are the same person.  Ummerteskee is the modern spelling of the name and is now known as a surname, Ahmadeske is the phonetic spelling of the name and Askwater is the English translation of the Name with a literal translation of He Asks for Water.

So the name is everything and one must look in the right place and have the right spelling.  Finally if one still cannot find that ancestor then perhaps that family story was just that  – a family story.

Indian Census Collection


Preface of the National Archives Records Group of the BIA Microfilm No 75 Housed in Ft Worth Texas pg 1

Wright, Muriel H. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 1968

Garrick Bailey and Roberta Glenn Bailey, “Redbird Smith,” in Encyclopedia of North American Indians, ed. Frederick E. Hoxie (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996).

The Authors own Cherokee Genealogy Research



About Josiah Hair

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59 thoughts on “Final Roll of the Cherokee Nation & Freedman

  1. steve morrow ( horse ) says:


    • My great great grandmother was Lydia comadora morrow she married James Padgett on my mom’s side I too am looking for my Native American roots. My Torrey sr

  2. steve morrow ( horse ) says:


  3. Linda says:

    My family names are Prince preston and Castle . Lived in Kent and tenn Floyd Co Kent was last know ares Anyone know anything?

  4. Josiah Hair says:

    One must understand that prior to the 1900’s most Fullblood Cherokees did not use a Sirname, that is an European Custom. Intermarried Cherokee Women would use their White Husbands name but if you traced her family it would be difficult to find a “Maiden” name since women were not named after their Fathers! Very Typically you would find only her first name listed with the White Husband and no last name. This is the major problem since the Indian Blood would reside with the Female, in this case it would be very difficult to trace that side and know that you have the right blood line. By Laws of the United States that woman would become a Citizen of the United States and give up her rights as a Cherokee Citizen if she moved outside the boundries of the Cherokee Nations. Until the Termination of the Cherokee Nation in 1907 we were viewed as a Sovereign Nation with full rights and laws over our own people.

  5. Kim Limon says:

    My grandfather is
    David Crockett McBroom his father is Wiley Monroe McBroom his dad is Isacc Patton Patients McBroom his dad is Able Armstrong Mcbroom and his dad is
    James McBroom lll I would like to know if any of these men are on the Dawes roll can you help me?

    • Josiah says:

      I did a look up on just the last Name of McBroom and had only one hit. It was regarding a very common case at this time, of a Cherokee woman and her White Husband. There names were I.N. McBroom and Elfie McBroom they are the only McBroom’s listed in either the Dawes or Miller Rolls. The case was decided in the US District court as were many of this type where a US Citizen would marry a Cherokee citizen. Previous to 1885 A Non Cherokee would receive full rights to land and citizenship if they married a Cherokee Citizen. However in the 1890’s a rash of these marriages suddenly appeared and finally the Cherokee Council passed a law regarding this issue in 1895. This couple was Married 1897 in Melvin, Indian Territory this town is under water now in what is now Lake Ft Gibson. She is a Cherokee Citizen born in 1857 Tahlequah District and this was her third marriage, her Maiden name is Dance she is the Daughter of Jack Dance a white man and Susan Bushyhead a Cherokee Citizen. They rejected his claim and his number is R92 (Which means rejected 92nd case) her Dawes Card Number is 1843 and they assigned a Roll number of 27353 to her. They did not have children and she was assigned citizenship in 1905. I was surprised that she did not file for Miller Compensation in 1907 for some reason unless she filed under a different name, I did look up her three married names and maiden name to no avail. I searched for what the initials of I.N. McBroom meant and found none (apparently it was all the rage to just give initials!!)

  6. Louise Crowley says:

    My ancestors surname: NIVENS (july and sallie) are my great great grandparents. July is my maternal grandmother’s grandfather. Can’t find any info on their children (specifically their daughter, “Jessie” who is my great grandmother. They are all on Dawes final roll (except for ‘Sallie’

    • Josiah Hair says:

      July Nivens age 25 was listed on Dawes Card 118 as a Cherokee Freedman. He lists 5 Children: Lila Nivens Born 4 Aug 1897, Jessie Nevins Born 14 Aug 1898, Hanson Nivens Born 17 Oct 1899, Webb Nivens Born 26 Feb 1901 and Dennis Nivens Born 26 April 1902. Furthermore in the Dawes Packet it lists Lila Nivens died 1 Oct 1902. He originally enrolled on 4 April 1901 at Ft Gibson he lists his Residence as Illinois District. He lists his Wife as Sallie Nivens maiden name Mayfield she was a claimant for citizenship, she does not have status as Cherokee by blood or freedman she was born outside the Nation so not enrolled. He lists his parents as Isaac and Louisa Nevins.

    • Louise – I just found out July is also my maternal great great grandfather. Although Josiah did not mention July and Sally’s daughter Rebecca (Becky) Nivens, my great grandmother.

      • Louise C says:

        Wow, I am just seeing this. Was doing a search for someone else in my family and decided to read this again. Glad I did. Are you a member of Ancestry? If so, we can communicate there. If not, I would LOVE to see pictures if you have any of the Nivens?????

  7. Patricia Sharpe Lafayette says:

    My Great Grand Father has a Dewes Enrollment Card# 5252 Roll# 28118 Daniel E. Moore (1/4 blood) his mother Lucienda Langley (1/4 blood) Roll# 28118 was first married to Alec Johnson #272 on the Cooweescoowee District census but there appears to be no children from that marriage. She later marries Daniel C. Moore Card#R601 1/4 and has three children from which my Great Grand Father Daniel Elijah Moore was born. For some reason his enrollment was rejected but there is no explanation why. I am also trying to find out where my Great Great Grand parents Lucinda Langley Moore and Daniel C Moore are buried. I thought somewhere in Alabama since that is where their son migrated to but any leads would be greatly appreciated.

    • Marcelle Langley Duffel says:

      It was great seeing your post. I too am looking for the time of death and resting place of Daniel Curtis Moore. I know Lucinda died in Oklahoma. Lucinda is the daughter of Lock and Lucinda. There was a child born of daughter Lucinda and David Andrew Johnson. I am also looking for the whereabout of David. The children of Dan and Lucinda are Daniel Elijah Moore, Dovie, Charlie L. (he was born and died in Oklahoma) Susie and Lucinda Elizabeth.
      Please contact me at [email protected]

  8. Tamila says:

    My great grandmother name is Loise Wilson or Jones our family history says she was full Cherokee . But I am just beginning my research! I hope this is true! Very interesting!!

    • Josiah Hair says:

      I caution you to enter into your research with an open mind, for family stories are just that stories. For a Fullblood great grandmother would make her children half and the next generation 1/4 bloods if no further marrying of natives. Also it was only on the Dawes Rolls that it was even asked what % a person was because prior to that even a white was considered a citizen within the Cherokee nation prior to 1900 provided the married a cherokee.

  9. BABYPAUL says:


  10. kimberley says:

    we found my great grandmothers dawes roll roll 882 card 332 in the family bible I am looking for family history, My aunt has been trying for years and we get stopped at Samuel Penn my great great grandfather, my great grand grandmother his daughter was Sarah F Penn. Very interested in finding history, can you help?

    • Josiah says:

      Card 332 is found on several different lists, By Blood: Richard Pierce and wife Nannie Parris plus 4 Children
      Doubtful D332: John Barger and wife Lydia Bell and Rejected list R332: Minnie Ward
      None have a roll number of 882
      The Index is Alphabetical so I would need the name to look up the Roll Number 882 to shed more light on this

  11. babypaul says:


    • Josiah Hair says:

      I went back and looked at the Freedman Roll and on card 332 is Sarah Penn age 28 of Ft Gibson Tahlequah District. She lists two children Lila Penn age 6 and Anna Penn age 3. She was married to an Anderson Penn a non citizen, does not mention if he is alive or dead. She is listed on the 1880 census as a freedman with a maiden name of Bean they list her parents John Bean and Cosby Bean on the same census. If this is a direct ancestor such as grand or great grand parents you can apply for citizenship to the cherokee nation as a freeman. The current wait time is over 3 years and as much as 5 years for an answer.

    • Stephen Hearn says:

      My family is also Fulbright from northeast Texas. Are these the same Fulbright you found?

  12. Chris Heiskill says:

    Well I have ran into what I have found to be a big problem. My mother and father divorced when I was 18 months old had very little contact with my father’s family. His name is John Heiskill Jr. His father is John C. Heiskill Sir. His wife is Gladys Heiskill maiden last name Knight. Her father form what I fount out from his family is Henry Knight. I have looked all over and I need some help any would be appreciated

    • Josiah Hair says:

      John C Heiskill Sr
      Birth: Feb. 14, 1924
      Death: Nov. 15, 1987
      WW2 Veteran
      John Mason Heiskill (1890 – 1973)
      Lola Cordelia Little Heiskill (1910 – 1995)

      Elsie I Heiskill Taylor (1911 – 1992)**
      Glenn Roy Heiskill (1931 – 2003)*
      Delinda Heiskill (1942 – 1945)*
      Jeannie Heiskill Walker-Morrison (1948 – 2011)*

      Oakdale Cemetery
      Okfuskee County
      Oklahoma, USA

      Not sure if this is the same person, but I also did a broad search of any Heiskill listing on any roll of any Tribe since 1817 and not one has ever been listed…

      • Chris Heiskill says:

        The grandparent I was really looking for was my grand mother her name was Gladys Louise Heiskill but her father was Henry Knight.

  13. Josiah Hair says:

    I searched for both Gladys and Henry Knight, no real hits. When doing this kind of search it is rare that you find any useful information without knowing birth and death dates, where they lived (States) if they had any siblings ect ect. And females are the hardest to search for especially due to maiden names, married names and multiple marriages. the idea that older folks stayed in the same marriage is a myth. lots of reasons why a female would remarry not just because of divorce.

  14. babypaul says:

    That so much for this information site. I found the infro for Grandpa Grant knight,D.O.B./10/1854.AlsoGrandma NancyKnight,D.O.B.3/1868. The year they both died.
    Have all the patrents also. Now I am confusion.
    One are listed as Choctaw, with cards and numbers and the other ones are Cherokees,with cards and numbers.
    But the numbers are listed with R.
    I also have a list of the blood amount. Some of the infro came fro N.A.R. in Ft. Worth.
    Can I applied for memebership in these Tribes?
    Also how long do it take for them to process an application?

    • Josiah says:

      If the number started with a R that meant that listing was among the Rejected applications.

  15. Kristi Sparks says:

    I am searching for a roll number for Mary Stella Rose born on or about 25 Dec. 1895 to Oliver Goldman Rose and Martha Alice McBroom(unsure of maiden name) she married a Claud Unger, and one of their children was Myrtle Izeeta Unger. Attempting to locate registered person for my husband to submit application. Thank you

  16. Found an ancestor of my wife on the Cherokee Freedmen Roll. Nancy Walker census card number 423. Any info would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!

  17. Josiah says:

    She is age 31 at the time of enrollment (April 13th 1901)
    Ft Gibson IT
    Her father’s name is Johnson Meigs
    Her Mother’s name is Charlotte Walker She took the name of her mother…
    She lived with a James Vann but she says they never married and have no living children.
    They listed her on the 1880 Census as Nancy Walker Illinois District Freedman
    And 1896 Census as Nancy Vann same District

  18. Wanda Bagwell Fowler says:

    I am trying to trace my cherokee heritage on my mother’s side. Her father’s name was Richard G. Grant. His mother’s name was Rebecca Haney. Richard lived in Rome,Ga. where he died after being treated for Tuberculosis. According to my mother he lived on a reservation when he was young, but she was not sure where. Any help in this matter would be greatly appreciated. My mother and grandmother have both passed away so I have lost any way of finding more information form the family.

    • Josiah Hair says:

      Good Morning, The information that you provided will yield tens of thousands of hits without knowing what is a good lead vs a bad one.
      So I will provide some useful information in your search and some insight where to look.
      When setting out on a search you must have some basic information, Name, Date of Birth, Death date if passed away,where they were born where they passed away. Parents names all of there information that you could possibly find. In the case of females must annotate the name is maiden name or married name and name of husband if known. Siblings of the people is most helpful and if there are no siblings that will also be helpful for that will eliminate those that you find with siblings. Just a name will not yield very reliable results without knowing the age of the person, for just doing a quick search of both names I found records going all the way back to the 1700’s and thousands of people with those same exact names! Now this is just doing a search of Federal Census for you can gain insight into the family you are looking for for if a person is Native they would be listed on the Federal Census starting in 1900. Prior to that they would be listed with the agency that serves that native population. You mention Rome Georgia, which indeed was within the Cherokee Nation until 1835, after that date the State of Georgia ignored the Supreme Court ruling and took over those lands forcing the Federal Government to round up Cherokees and move them into Tennessee until they were forced marched to Indian Territory from 1838 to 1839. As for the native population in Georgia they ceased to to exist and those that did not abide by the ruling either went to Indian Territory or moved into North Carolina where they reside to this day. There were never any Reservations in the Eastern United States for the Treaties that dealt with these tribes were as Sovereign Nations and not as Hostiles as was the case with Western Tribes in the later 1800’s. The Eastern Cherokee purchased their land in the 1840’s and eventually the United States recognized them as a Band named the Eastern Cherokee Nation. It is classified as Trust Land held in Patent by the Tribe not a Reservation, for the Tourist tribe in the 1920’s they indeed erected a sign outside Cherokee North Carolina that says Reservation (Tourists love it). So I did a look up of both names you provided and none show up on the agency rolls listing Cherokees living in North Carolina the rolls only span 1898-1939 so if either were born before or after would not be listed, if either did not live in North Carolina they would not be listed. In 1924 the Eastern Cherokee were counted on the Baker Roll which only lists those that were residing WITH the tribe in that time. Descendants trace their blood line from that roll to today, just like Cherokees who are located in Oklahoma trace their bloodline from the Dawes Roll of 1907.

  19. Paula Roggow says:

    I was always told that my fraternal grandmother was full blooded Cherokee. Her information is listed below

    Anna Bernadett Canary Hamilton
    Date of birth: 3/20/1885
    Date of death: 10/24/1975
    Date of marriage: 10/5/1909
    Death occurred in Owensboro, Kentucky
    Husband : Joseph Francis Hamilton
    His Date of birth: 8/24/1886
    His Date of death: 4/25/1977
    His Death occurred in Owensboro, Kentucky
    Her father was James Henry Canary
    whose date of birth was 2/31/1931 (in US), and
    whose date of death was 8/25/1898 (United States)
    Thanks for any information you may have.

    • Josiah Hair says:

      Location is key when doing research for Cherokee Ancestors, so it appears they resided in Kentucky. The Nearest Cherokees reside to this day in North Carolina western North Carolina to be exact. They would not have been listed on any roll in that area even if they were Cherokee for they did not reside in the area. But since she was born in 1885 it would be possible to find her on the Miller Guion Roll which was done in 1909 (she would have been 24). Which I did a look up on her Maiden Name of Canary and she was not listed meaning she never applied for Compensation. I looked up her Father who should have been Full blood and he was not listed no Mother’s Name for she would have been Full blood also. The Miller Roll was unique in that it had no requirement for residency so a Cherokee that had moved from the main body of the tribe could still apply and did receive compensation due to them. Searching through the Roll I found only one Canary listed her name was Inola Canary with 4 children but Canary is her maiden name she was married to a James Canary age 37 they resided in Caney Kansas don’t look like the same family. I also looked for variations of the name and misspellings and turned up nothing.
      I write articles to help those that are doing research to have a better understanding of the Rolls that listed Cherokees from the early 1800’s. Yes I have access to do simple look ups but I do not do research per se. Both the Eastern Band and the Cherokee Nation have lists of PROFESSIONAL Researchers that you pay to do the research for you and may gain what your looking for.

  20. Paula Roggow says:

    Paula Roggow says:Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    May 4, 2016 at 7:19 pm

    I was always told that my fraternal grandmother was full blooded Cherokee. Her information is listed below

    Anna Bernadett Canary Hamilton
    Date of birth: 3/20/1885
    Date of death: 10/24/1975
    Date of marriage: 10/5/1909
    Death occurred in Owensboro, Kentucky
    Husband : Joseph Francis Hamilton
    His Date of birth: 8/24/1886
    His Date of death: 4/25/1977
    His Death occurred in Owensboro, Kentucky
    Her father was James Henry Canary
    whose date of birth was 2/31/1831 (in US), and
    whose date of death was 8/25/1898 (United States)
    Thanks for any information you may have.

  21. Nieta says:

    Hi I am looking for my great grandmother and her family. I would love your help here the information I do know. Great great grandmother Sarah J Cain maybe 38 at the time, great great grandfather James John Martin or John James Martin 42, children my great grandmother Ida Mea Martin born July 1888, brothers Oliver, Oscar, Eddie had one sister Lithy they all lived in Cherokee Ok that’s from the 1890 Oklahoma Territorial Census. My great grandmother went to a school don’t know which on or where. I know her teacher was a white women name Ella cause that who my great grandmother named my grandmother after. I think it was a boarding school of some kind but unsure. We do know my family was on the Trail of Tears but my great grandmother talked to her children about it and are from most likely Kentucky bc my great grandmother moved back here years later. I would love any help. I have found Ida Martin on Dawes Rolls card number 471 roll no 1388 but not sure if it is her. Thank you so much

    • Josiah says:

      I looked at Card number 471 and that is not Ida Martin.
      It is Mary Easky Goingsnake Dist Cherokee By Blood
      D471 is John Gray
      R471 is Robert Walker
      471 Benjamin Drew (Freedman Roll)

      As for the rest if they lived in Oklahoma Territory they would not have been enrolled for they lived outside the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation. I also look them up on the Miller Roll taken in 1907 and they are not listed.

  22. Ronnie Stanberry says:

    Looking for the James Warren Moore family from Arkansas. John W. Moore,
    James Warren Moore, Warren Moore, Henry Moore, James Edward Moore – thought to be Cherokee. Can you furnish any information on Cherokee Chisholm Moore with her son Warren Moore circa 1900? It would be interesting to see if that Warren Moore is part of our Moore family. Thank you.

    • I’d like information on Cherokee Chisolm Moore as well (circulating image with “Warren” on her lap – do not know source or veracity of image). Curious if this is the line of Lydia Halfbreed “QuaLaYuGa” Hicks?

  23. Kris Talley Ernissee says:

    I have a list of my aunts and uncles name from my Fathers side of the family. Whice is Cherokee. My Grandfathers Father Ran from the trail of tears. (So told) to the North. To Chicago.Changed his name to TALLEY common at the time. My “papa” told my father and me that we can NOT! talk about being Indian. That the laws was NOT changed of making him come back to the reservation if he was found. When growing up,my father was in the service and was NOT allowed in bars because he was “Indian”.At whice point played himself off as “Mexican” Just to get a beer. When we go to the Powwows. (Live in ga.from moving from tenn.) Never got asked “if you are Indian ” BUT What Tribe are you from. He NEVER Reg. as a native american. I begged for years.Told me that he would. He Passed away before he could do it. 80% of This side of the family is in Ala. and All I have is his sisters and brothers name. Is there anyway I can find out what tribe? from jsut there names?And Can I do an D.N.A test to prove that I’m Native American? I dont want anything from this but to know that i’m an “True person of this land”

    • Josiah Hair says:

      Several issues here, I will address each issue to help you understand that family stories sometimes are skewed by time. 1) The trail of Tears occurred in 1838-1839, 2) The relocation Act of of 1830 only addressed Cherokees residing in Tenn., GA. and Ala. 3) You were not required to move if you gave up citizenship in the Cherokee Nation or as most did moved to North Carolina to remain with the Eastern Cherokee. The rest (16,100) moved west to lands already settled by Cherokees and formed a Sovereign Nation that had its own laws and Court System until dissolved by the Curtis Act of 1896. We shall start with the first part of your story and that is your Grandfather’s Father who would have to have been at the very least a Teenager if not in his early 20’s to make the story fit in the Time frame the Trail of Tears occurred which was 1838, now the Roll was taken in 1835 so a full 3 years went by before any one started moving. So age wise this man would have been born in the 1820’s or late 1810’s and his son would have been born in 1840’s to 50’s and his son in the 1860’s to 70’s. We use this as a rule of thumb when determining timeframe when searching for each generation. This assumes a man/woman reaches an age to have Children in his late teens or early 20’s, so I give a 20 to 30 year spread between generations. In my own case I am 7 generations removed from the Trail of Tears as I was born in 1961, My daughter in 1990 and grand daughter in 2011 so she is 9 generations removed from the trail of tears. So I assume you were not born in the 1890’s?? This is a very common occurrence in family stories generations are removed in the telling of the tale. As for Names, Cherokees did not use surnames until the later half od the 1800’s and if you did find a surname before that it was because a White married a Cherokee and they took that name as there last name. In my own case my ancestors that were listed on the roll of 1835 only listed a single name and that name was not used later as a surname it was the English pronunciation of it and not all sons used it. My advice is to start from scratch, Family stories only give a frame work and a hint of what you may find. Start with your self and trace backwards using Federal Census of 1940,1930,1920,1910,1900 and 1800’s find when an ancestor would have resided near the old Cherokee nation or if they were ever listed on the numerous rolls in the 1850’s 1840′ 1820’s and 1817. The Cherokee Nation did its own census starting in the 1860s,70’s and 80’s and 1896 listing all there citizens and where they resided. There is the roll of 1840 which Cherokees signed up for to be compensated for property lost during the trail of tears. And in 1847 and 1851 several rolls were done of the Cherokees residing in North Carolina and Indian Territory some 20,000 all told. There is also the Muster Rolls of Cherokees Who fought for both sides in the Civil War and the Miller Guion Roll of 1907 that paid Cherokees for the Trail of Tears authorized by Teddy Roosevelt some 1,000,000 dollars. Good Luck

  24. Kris Talley Ernissee says:

    Well I want to know my family and history. I think we all want to know this. I meant “dont want anything ” was referring to any land or anything else. thank-you so much for your help.

  25. My grandmother on my dads side name was Mary Agnes Ash, I don’t know anything about her parents but we were told that she was full blooded Cherokee?? Not sure but she married Benjamin C. Simmons, her birthday was April 29, 1875. We are trying to search for any records to see if we are native American and also if any of them are on the indian role

    • Josiah Hair says:

      The Cherokees Comprise of Three Federally Recognized Tribes
      Cherokee Nation – Resides in Oklahoma
      United Keetoowah Band of Cherokees – Resides in Oklahoma
      Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians – Resides in North Carolina
      They share a common language, Culture and distinct background living together until 1807 when the 1st group what today we know as the UKB left the main body of the tribe and moved to the west originally settling in what is now Arkansas but by 1828 moved into present day Oklahoma. The 2nd Group what is today known as the Cherokee Nation were subject to the 1830 Removal Act and in 1838-1839 force marched into present day Oklahoma (Trail of Tears) the third group what we now know as the ECBI gave up there citizenship of the Cherokee Nation and resided in North Carolina thus not subject to the Removal Act, remaining together in a tribal unit were later granted the right to buy there land and place back into to Trust.
      As for Indian Rolls
      Cherokees has been documented on Numerous Rolls
      To give you some idea
      Starting in 1817,1835,1841
      Cherokee Census 1860,1870,1872,1880,1881,1883
      Cherokee Rolls 1891,1896,1897
      Dawes Rolls 1907
      Miller Guion Roll 1909
      Baker Roll 1924
      UKB Base Roll 1947
      So your search must start in a specific way,
      Where did you Grandparent RESIDE? what was there age? (important to know if they were a minor for instance they would not be listed but there parents would be)
      For Instance: The Dawes Roll of 1907 was actually taken 1900-1902 so if the person you were looking for DIDNT live in the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation and either they or there parents were listed on the 1896 or 1880 roll then they WILL NOT be LISTED!!
      If for instance they were Eastern Cherokee living in North Carolina in 1902 they will not be on the Dawes Roll for they were not eligible but they would probably be listed on the Miller Guion Roll of 1909 and most likely listed on the Baker Roll of 1924.
      Just having a Name will not help you must build a wider scope of the person you are looking for
      Age, Birthdate
      Location during the target years of each of these Rolls
      Parents Names
      Siblings if possible
      All of this information will be of a great value to determine if you are actually looking at an ancestor on one of these rolls or just somebody that has the same name but no relation.
      Location is a HUGE issue for if the Ancestor did not stay with the main body of the Tribe they will not be listed on these Rolls!!
      There was no walls around the Areas that Cherokees lived in (North Carolina and Oklahoma) there was free movement back and forth if a Cherokee woman married a White man it was probable that she would eventually leave and go live amongst his people to raise children and never look back. Just as it was likely a White would come into the nation and marry a Cherokee and STAY and raise a family. Cherokees listed everybody that lived amongst us if they were of another tribe or white or black all were listed.
      Good Luck

  26. Marcie says:

    My grandfathers name is John Haywood Taylor he was born in 1911. Supposedly a full blooded Cherokee who married his first cousin Marie Albritton. Their mothers were sisters. They had 4 kids one is my mom. I can’t find any information on John Taylor I don’t even know his parents names. Although I’ve heard his mom may have been Alice Sparr but why the different last name?!? Any help would be appreciated!

  27. Hello:

    Through doing an online search I stumbled upon your site. Thank you!
    I was searching for more information on Cherokee Chisolm Moore and saw another web user made an inquiry above about this same person.

    I come from the Hicks clan. We have NA trace DNA – but we are having a hard time discovering our direct link to the clan. Our family migrations; TN, VA, NC, and SC to MO, AR, TX, and OK before migrating to Flint, MI (early 1900s) where many other Cherokee migrated late 1800s and early 1900s.

    Our grt++ grandfather “James Hicks”(born between 1800-1810) went with the Cherokee clan (including his brother) from OK to discover gold in CA (mid 1800s). Newspaper articles state he struck gold with his brother – then went to AR and bought land. Cherokee, CA was founded based on this group where the discovery was made and attributed to the “Cherokee Scott brothers” (cousins to Hicks – or possibly our forefather “James” and his brother).

    Surnames in our family and extended family include; Hicks, Bell, Gilbert, McFarland, Vaughan, Campbell, Coleman, Rogers, Thompson, Brown, Guthrie, Adair, Hale, Davis, Pettit, Carr, and many more.

    Can you please help with any of the following;

    James Lawson Hicks born 1809 (ish) VA (unknown parents)
    m. Amelia Ann Vaughan born 1825 (ish) MO -> DNA circles leads to William Patrick and “Fair-a-Bee Lunah” – Fereby Looney

    William David Hicks b. 1847 (ish) Arkansas
    m. Mary Elizabeth “Mollie” McFarland 1850 (ish) MO – (unknown parents – though DNA circles leads her to a relationship with John Hicks McFarland – this name threw us for a loop).

    John Bell Hicks b. AR
    m. Maggie Bell Gilbert b. AR

    We also have direct ancestors who married into Chief James Vann’s line, another into Captain Benge’s line, etc.

    It appears our James Lawson Hicks may have had a name change (possibly). Once he struck gold, purchased land in AR, and the local papers picked up his story, they also hung his portrait in the Washington (AR) courthouse. However, they eventually took it down because it appeared “he was not quite the man they thought him to be.” Great! 😉

    Now, to wrap back around to Cherokee Chisolm Moore. There is an image circulating of her with a child on her lap. I do not know the veracity of the image, HOWEVER, whoever the woman is – she is the spitting image of me! My entire family was shocked when I generated the image. Uncanny resemblance! I understand that I could be this person’s doppelgänger – but we are definitely curious enough to try and figure this out (especially since Moore surname pops up as DNA connections often on Gedmatch and Ancestry).

    Last note: My mom’s DNA circles and most of her matches on Ancestry lead either to Wolf, Potato, Long Hair, Paint clans, Powhatan, Moytoy, etc.


    I am sorry if this is convoluted – but I am so hopeful you may be able to help untangle some of our mess.

    Thank you for your time.

    A. H.

    • A. Hicks says:

      I also am Hicks & have taken a 23 & me DNA Test that shows Native American along with other stuff. My family also migrated down thru Arkansas,Texas & Oklahoma also come down from .
      Family has passed stories down that has Cherokee down from both side & Creek on topside also.
      And My Initials are also A.H.

  28. Katrina Ferguson says:

    My grandfather was born in Krebs OK in 1903. His birth name was Leslie Thomas Brown in 1906 his birth mom died .He was adopted by his birth mom’s sister and husband his name then became Leslie Thomas Jones.
    Can anyone help me???

  29. Teresa Ashby says:

    My grandmother said that we are native American, I have tried to trace her mother Suzie Beavers and can only find her first name listed in a family of white people who were in Eastern Kentucky, she was blind and was married to Bill Beavers. My grandmother was proud of her heritage, but the place where we grew up was not as accepting of us. We were called names and made fun of because of it. My grandmother was born in Iuka Kentucky and moved to Illinois when she got married her name was Harriet Beavers she married a Long, then a Dunnaway. I would like to find out more about the native American tribes and which one we belong to. If there is anything you can tell me to help me, I would greatly appreciate it.

    • Josiah Hair says:

      This is a very common family story and very difficult to trace with any satisfaction, meaning to a desired ancestor that is Native American. First off the name Beavers, is that a Maiden Name? What time frame would she have lived in Kentucky? For by the early 1800’s all Native tribes had moved or were exterminated that resided in Kentucky. Prior to that in the 1700’s very small tribes and a few larger ones such as the Shawnee hunted in the area and the Cherokee to the South also hunted in the area but never built any permanent settlements. Most common stories are that the Ancestor is Cherokee although they resided near the area they never built any settlements in Kentucky and by 1800 mainly resided in southeastern Tenn, Northwest area of North Carolina and Northern Georgia. Throughout the early 1800’s a number probably in the 2-5 thousand range migrated to the west into what became Arkansas and Missouri Territories. In 1828 thru 1832 they signed a series of Treaties and moved into present day Oklahoma. The Eastern group that stayed behind in Georgia and Tenn were subject to the Removal act in 1830 and finally after court cases and a series of Roundups were moved to Present Day Oklahoma in 1838-1839 what has become known as the Trail of Tears. the last remaining group of Cherokees lived in North Carolina and renounced there citizenship in the Cherokee Nation and thus were allowed to remain and do so to this day in Western North Carolina what we today know as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian. This makes up the Three Federally Recognized Tribes of Cherokees: Eastern Band in North Carolina, Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma and United Keetoowah Band of Cherokees both of whom are composed of those that were on the Trail of Tears and those that moved before hand.
      We are descendants of those that remained with the tribe throughout these different periods of time, we are listed on Rolls starting in 1817 up to today. In some cases there was intermarriage when a Cherokee would marry a Non-Citizen and chose to live outside of our boundaries, but in those cases the families would make note of that when accounting for family members prior to 1900. Was it foolproof? No however it is possible to reconstruct what happened but ONLY if you have enough of the missing pieces. Such as Good solid Maiden names for Women, Birth and Death Date to establish age where they resided ect. Chances are if you find an ancestor listed on a FEDERAL Census prior to 1900 they will not be Cherokee for we were not Citizens of the Untied States until 1924, and starting 1900 we were listed on a separate schedule of the Census called Indian Schedule.
      It will be a daunting task if you only have one name…

      • Teresa Ashby says:

        Thank you so much for the information, I am not home right now but will look for dates as I have my grandmother’s Bible. What you have told me gives me hope of knowing who we really are. My great grandmother as far as I know had no maiden name. My grandmother said that she was sold into the white family because of her disability of being blind. All we know is that she was from North Carolina and her family sold her as a very young child, they called her Suzie. She married Bill Beavers. I looked up the name Beavers, came from Normandy. I did not know either one of my great grandparents, but I am excited to connect with you for information. Truly I would be very proud of my heritage no matter what it is. Thank you again. I will get back with you soon.

  30. Looking for information about Lucy E. Wilson (Native American) who married Hudson Skaggs in Scott County, Arkansas. She had two little girls with Hudson and died while he was away in Union Army. Would love to know if she is on Dawes roll and how much Indian blood if any. If you could help me would appreciate it. Thanks.

  31. Lisa King Ford says:

    Im looking for information about the King family and our Native American heritage. All of us over many years have been told our great grandfather was Cherokee and our great grandmother was from another tribe. Can you help me? i HAVE FOUND MANY KINGS ON THE DAWES ROLL. Need to find if any below are actually on that roll.
    Stephen King was born on August 10, 1829, in Sampson, North Carolina, his father, Alvin, was 21 and his mother, Matilda, was 19. He married Eliza Ann Dickson and they had one son together. He also had one son from another relationship. He died on December 29, 1864, in Gibson, Tennessee, at the age of 35, and was buried in Gibson, Tennessee.
    When William James King was born on February 19, 1855, in Gibson, Tennessee, his father, Stephen, was 25 and his mother, Eliza, was 27. He married Mary L (Mollie) Taylor on May 25, 1879. They had one child during their marriage. He died on July 13, 1929, in his hometown at the age of 74, and was buried there.

    When Steve F King -MY GREAT GRANDFATER- was born on August 1, 1881, in Tennessee, his father, William, was 26 and his mother, Mary, was 19. He married Katie Bell King -MY GREAT GRANDMOTHER-on October 5, 1905. They had ten children in 20 years. He died on February 22, 1960, in Gibson, Tennessee, at the age of 78, and was buried there.
    Their Children
    Breford Franklin King – THIS IS MY GRANDFATHER
    Mollie Mae King
    Elsie Virginia King
    Virgie Louise King
    Paul Stephen King
    Bessie Kate King
    Jessie Lee King
    James Parnell King
    Mary Catherine King
    Charlie King

    • Josiah Hair says:

      Good day,
      One of the most misunderstood aspect of the Dawes Rolls is who it applied to. In the case of Cherokees it only applied to those that resided within the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory. They had to been residing in this jurisdiction for at least 20 years and were recognized as Cherokee by the Cherokee Nation. The Dawes Commission never determined who was Cherokee just that they still resided within the Nation. In your case it appears that your ancestors resided in Tennessee. If they had traveled to Indian Territory they would have been placed on the reject list for the simple fact they resided outside the nation. When doing research one of the main things I determine is if they had resided with the main body of the tribe. If not then chances are these are just family stories and not usefull for proving any sort of relationship. Keep searching perhaps it’s somebody that nobody talked about that was Native…

  32. Kristine says:

    I was told I was related to sequoia but I can’t find anything about him that would be help full

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